Article 8 of the Paris Agreement identifies areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support. Among these are circumstances that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage. For these types of impacts, a range of approaches, beyond insurance, may apply. The resources below shed light on the state of current research in this area.

Biodiversity Loss in a Changing Planet (2011)

As every ecosystem is a complex and sensible organization of carefully mixed life forms, their progressive decline may accelerate climate change and vice versa, influencing flora and fauna composition and distribution, resulting in the permanent loss of biodiversity. Climate changes effects are the principal topics of this book.

Human Impact Report: Climate Change - The Anatomy of A Silent Crisis (2009)

This report aims to document the impact of climate change on human life globally and shows that climate change is already causing widespread devastation and suffering around the planet today. The findings of this report indicate that every year climate change leaves over 300,000 people dead and 325 million people seriously affected. This report covers a variety of climate change impacts including permanent natural resource loss, permanent migration, and permanent loss of livelihoods.

Loss and Damage in Africa (2014)

This report addresses the challenges of having to cope with permanent losses. As of writing there were no formal, explicit institutional arrangements in place to address permanent loss from climate change impacts. However, it is suggested that such institutional arrangements will become important in the future as losses from climate change become more evident.

Non-Economic Loss and Damage Caused by Climatic Stressors in Selected Coastal Districts of Bangladesh (2014)

Climate change poses a significant threat to human security not only by exacerbating existing patterns of social vulnerability but also by exposing communities to new and more severe risks. Vulnerable communities around the world have already started experiencing losses and damages however research has been slow to capture community experiences particularly with regards to non-economic losses. This report aims to respond to this gap in knowledge by presenting findings from the community level in South-West Bangladesh.

The Norwegian Natural Catastrophe Compensation System (2015)

Norway has suffered numerous and severe natural disasters throughout its history. Landslides and floods have produced the most relevant losses. The Norwegian natural catastrophe compensation system not only covers losses from natural catastrophes, but also supports research and studies to prevent and reduce risks in the near future, such as climate change.