Article 8 of the Paris Agreement identifies areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support. Among these are circumstances that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage. For these types of impacts, a range of approaches, beyond insurance, may apply. The resources below shed light on the state of current research in this area.

Climate-induced community relocations: using integrated social-ecological assessments to foster adaptation and resilience (2015)

Extreme weather events coupled with sea level rise and erosion will cause coastal and riverine areas where people live and maintain livelihoods to disappear permanently. Adaptation to these environmental changes, including the permanent relocation of millions of people, requires new governance tools. Based on research involving four Alaska Native communities threatened by climate-induced environmental impacts, the research proposes the design and implementation of an adaptive governance framework to respond to the need to relocate populations.